Punycode domain uses wrong fqdn for name resolution

Punycode name resolution does not seem to work correctly.
Instead of resolving www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de it resolves tries to resolve www.familientr\xe4ume-ostfriesland.de.

My domain is: www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de

I ran this command:
certbot-auto certonly -c ./www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de.ini --dry-run

It produced this output:
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Plugins selected: Authenticator webroot, Installer None
Cert is due for renewal, auto-renewing…
Renewing an existing certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for static.familienträume-ostfriesland.de
http-01 challenge for www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de
http-01 challenge for familienträume-ostfriesland.de
Using the webroot path /var/www/familientraeume-ostfriesland.de/htdocs for all unmatched domains.
Waiting for verification…
Cleaning up challenges
Running post-hook command: systemctl reload nginx
Failed authorization procedure. familienträume-ostfriesland.de (http-01): urn:ietf:params:acme:error:connection :: The server could not connect to the client to verify the domain :: Fetching https://www.familientr\xe4ume-ostfriesland.de/.well-known/acme-challenge/9uGWHv3ZUnyr1MpUaf4_XrWSycckwrtAJ81wPxTYvyw: dns :: DNS problem: NXDOMAIN looking up A for www.familientr\xe4ume-ostfriesland.de, www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de (http-01): urn:ietf:params:acme:error:connection :: The server could not connect to the client to verify the domain :: Fetching https://www.familientr\xe4ume-ostfriesland.de/.well-known/acme-challenge/vFPHNYQ5phP_8pAGIC0jLKTz6xgMhr5sweuZHAeJJ2Q: dns :: DNS problem: NXDOMAIN looking up A for www.familientr\xe4ume-ostfriesland.de


My web server is (include version):

The operating system my web server runs on is (include version):
Ubuntu 16.04.6 LTS

My hosting provider, if applicable, is:
Self hosted on a vps

I can login to a root shell on my machine (yes or no, or I don’t know): yes

I’m using a control panel to manage my site (no, or provide the name and version of the control panel):

The version of my client is (e.g. output of certbot --version or certbot-auto --version if you’re using Certbot):
certbot-auto --version
certbot 0.31.0

Hi @Madic

This is the file name of an ini-file. It's more a OS-problem.

Easy solution: Change the filename, ä -> ae.

Your command

must use the correct ASCII version. This is


I don’t see the point where this should be a problem with the name of the file.
The log states the following problem:
DNS problem: NXDOMAIN looking up A for www.familientr\xe4ume-ostfriesland.de

But nevertheless I changed the filename to your suggestion and the same problem still occurs.

You must change your command and use the ASCII version. But perhaps the command is defined in your ini file.

The command translates to:

certbot-auto certonly -d www.xn--familientrume-ostfriesland-phc.de -d static.xn--familientrume-ostfriesland-phc.de -d xn--familientrume-ostfriesland-phc.de --webroot --webroot-path=/var/www/familientraeume-ostfriesland.de/htdocs --dry-run

Still the following problem:
DNS problem: NXDOMAIN looking up A for www.familientr\xe4ume-ostfriesland.de

www.familientr\xe4ume-ostfriesland.de is the wrong punycode. certbot-auto should use

I do see the point that the first post was wrong due to automatic formatting. Sorry, haven’t noticed that.

Now it's an error of a wrong redirect.

Checked your domain via https://check-your-website.server-daten.de/?q=familienträume-ostfriesland.de your redirects are wrong:

Domainname Http-Status redirect Sec. G
http://familienträume-ostfriesland.de/ 301 https://www.familientrã¤ume-ostfriesland.de/ 0.043 E
2a03:4000:26:d1::2 301 https://www.familientrã¤ume-ostfriesland.de/ 0.040 E
http://www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de/ 301 https://www.familientrã¤ume-ostfriesland.de/ 0.043 E
2a03:4000:26:d1::2 301 https://www.familientrã¤ume-ostfriesland.de/ 0.040 E
https://www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de/ -1 0.044 R
NameResolutionFailure - The remote name could not be resolved: 'www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de'
https://familienträume-ostfriesland.de/ 200 1.944 I
2a03:4000:26:d1::2 200 1.230 I
https://www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de/ 200 1.283 I
2a03:4000:26:d1::2 200 1.240 I
http://familienträume-ostfriesland.de/.well-known/acme-challenge/check-your-website-dot-server-daten-dot-de 301 https://www.familientrã¤ume-ostfriesland.de/.well-known/acme-challenge/check-your-website-dot-server-daten-dot-de 0.043 E
Visible Content: 301 Moved Permanently nginx
2a03:4000:26:d1::2 301 https://www.familientrã¤ume-ostfriesland.de/.well-known/acme-challenge/check-your-website-dot-server-daten-dot-de 0.040 E
Visible Content: 301 Moved Permanently nginx
http://www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de/.well-known/acme-challenge/check-your-website-dot-server-daten-dot-de 301 https://www.familientrã¤ume-ostfriesland.de/.well-known/acme-challenge/check-your-website-dot-server-daten-dot-de 0.044 E
Visible Content: 301 Moved Permanently nginx
2a03:4000:26:d1::2 301 https://www.familientrã¤ume-ostfriesland.de/.well-known/acme-challenge/check-your-website-dot-server-daten-dot-de 0.040 E
Visible Content: 301 Moved Permanently nginx
https://www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de/.well-known/acme-challenge/check-your-website-dot-server-daten-dot-de -1 0.016 R
NameResolutionFailure - The remote name could not be resolved: 'www.familienträume-ostfriesland.de'
Visible Content:

You use direct utf-8 in your redirect destination, that's wrong. Use the punycode instead to redirect http -> https.

So the redirect result is wrong.

Letsencrypt follows these redirects - and has a not existing domain name.


I think you've found the most important problem here because the original error was from the CA, not from Certbot.

This can all be pretty confusing when someone has a non-ASCII domain name because the range of tools and systems that support IDN directly is pretty limited, and it's not necessarily well-documented which systems and software will require punycode forms to be used explicitly. Maybe there's a need for a clear guide that says "if you use a non-ASCII domain, here are all of the things that you have to worry about". (But maybe the guide would just end up saying "use punycode everywhere all of the time except in user-facing links".)

1 Like

You're right. This was the solution. I removed the UTF-8 redirect destinations and now it's working. Thank you for your help.

With this domain I've learned to never again support UTF-8 encoded domains and recommend pure ascii domains. Not only with let's encrypt there were problems...


But worldwide this isn't a solution.

Checked my PublicSuffixList - Table (from check-your-website), there I have the public suffix and the public suffix as ASCII - code.

These are allowed parts of domain names.

List of Punycode - Public Suffix List entries
PublicSuffixAscii PublicSuffix
sande.xn--mre-og-romsdal-qqb.no sande.møre-og-romsdal.no
xn--0trq7p7nn.jp 和歌山.jp
xn--11b4c3d कॉम
ศึกษา.ไทย ศึกษา.ไทย
องค์กร.ไทย องค์กร.ไทย
ธุรกิจ.ไทย ธุรกิจ.ไทย
xn--1ck2e1b セール
xn--1ctwo.jp 富山.jp
xn--1lqs03n.jp 京都.jp
xn--1lqs71d.jp 東京.jp
xn--1qqw23a 佛山
xn--2m4a15e.jp 長野.jp
xn--2scrj9c ಭಾರತ
xn--30rr7y 慈善
xn--32vp30h.jp 青森.jp
xn--3bst00m 集团
xn--3ds443g 在线
xn--3e0b707e 한국
xn--3hcrj9c ଭାରତ
xn--3oq18vl8pn36a 大众汽车
xn--3pxu8k 点看
xn--42c2d9a คอม
xn--45br5cyl ভাৰত
xn--45brj9c ভারত
xn--45q11c 八卦
xn--4gbrim موقع
xn--4it168d.jp 福岡.jp
xn--4it797k.jp 静岡.jp
xn--4pvxs.jp 栃木.jp
xn--54b7fta0cc বাংলা
xn--55qw42g 公益
xn--55qx5d 公司
公司.cn 公司.cn
xn--55qx5d.hk 公司.hk
公司.香港 公司.香港
xn--5js045d.jp 埼玉.jp
xn--5rtp49c.jp 石川.jp
xn--5rtq34k.jp 香川.jp
xn--5su34j936bgsg 香格里拉
xn--5tzm5g 网站
xn--6btw5a.jp 宮崎.jp
xn--6frz82g 移动
xn--6orx2r.jp 山口.jp
xn--6qq986b3xl 我爱你
xn--7t0a264c.jp 群馬.jp
xn--80adxhks москва
xn--80ao21a қаз
xn--80aqecdr1a католик
xn--80asehdb онлайн
xn--80aswg сайт
ак.срб ак.срб
xn--8ltr62k.jp 長崎.jp
xn--8pvr4u.jp 熊本.jp
xn--8y0a063a 联通
xn--90a3ac срб
xn--90ae бг
xn--90ais бел
обр.срб обр.срб
xn--9dbhblg6di.museum ירושלים.museum
xn--9dbq2a קום
xn--9et52u 时尚
xn--9krt00a 微博
xn--andy-ira.no andøy.no
xn--aroport-bya.ci aéroport.ci
xn--asky-ira.no askøy.no
xn--aurskog-hland-jnb.no aurskog-høland.no
xn--avery-yua.no averøy.no
xn--b-5ga.nordland.no bø.nordland.no
xn--b-5ga.telemark.no bø.telemark.no
xn--b4w605ferd 淡马锡
xn--balsan-sdtirol-nsb.it balsan-südtirol.it
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c ファッション
xn--bdddj-mrabd.no bådåddjå.no
xn--bearalvhki-y4a.no bearalváhki.no
xn--berlevg-jxa.no berlevåg.no
xn--bhcavuotna-s4a.no báhcavuotna.no
xn--bhccavuotna-k7a.no báhccavuotna.no
xn--bidr-5nac.no báidár.no
xn--bievt-0qa.no bievát.no
xn--bjarky-fya.no bjarkøy.no
xn--bjddar-pta.no bájddar.no
xn--blt-elab.no bálát.no
xn--bmlo-gra.no bømlo.no
xn--bod-2na.no bodø.no
xn--bozen-sdtirol-2ob.it bozen-südtirol.it
xn--brnny-wuac.no brønnøy.no
xn--brnnysund-m8ac.no brønnøysund.no
xn--brum-voa.no bærum.no
xn--btsfjord-9za.no båtsfjord.no
xn--bulsan-sdtirol-nsb.it bulsan-südtirol.it
xn--c1avg орг
орг.срб орг.срб
xn--c2br7g नेट
xn--c3s14m.jp 愛媛.jp
xn--cck2b3b ストア
xn--cesena-forl-mcb.it cesena-forlì.it
xn--cesenaforl-i8a.it cesenaforlì.it
xn--cg4bki 삼성
xn--ciqpn.hk 个人.hk
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd சிங்கப்பூர்
xn--comunicaes-v6a2o.museum comunicações.museum
xn--correios-e-telecomunicaes-ghc29a.museum correios-e-telecomunicações.museum
xn--czr694b 商标
xn--czrs0t 商店
xn--czru2d 商城
xn--czrw28b.tw 商業.tw
xn--d1acj3b дети
xn--d1alf мкд
од.срб од.срб
xn--d5qv7z876c.jp 鹿児島.jp
xn--davvenjrga-y4a.no davvenjárga.no
xn--djrs72d6uy.jp 北海道.jp
xn--djty4k.jp 岩手.jp
xn--dnna-gra.no dønna.no
xn--drbak-wua.no drøbak.no
xn--dyry-ira.no dyrøy.no
xn--e1a4c ею
xn--eckvdtc9d ポイント
xn--efvn9s.jp 新潟.jp
xn--efvy88h 新闻
xn--ehqz56n.jp 三重.jp
xn--elqq16h.jp 福井.jp
xn--estv75g 工行
xn--eveni-0qa01ga.no evenášši.no
xn--f6qx53a.jp 兵庫.jp
xn--fct429k 家電
xn--fhbei كوم
xn--finny-yua.no finnøy.no
xn--fiq228c5hs 中文网
xn--fiq64b 中信
xn--fiqs8s 中国
xn--fiqz9s 中國
xn--fjord-lra.no åfjord.no
xn--fjq720a 娱乐
xn--fl-zia.no flå.no
xn--flor-jra.no florø.no
xn--flw351e 谷歌
xn--forl-cesena-fcb.it forlì-cesena.it
xn--forlcesena-c8a.it forlìcesena.it
xn--fpcrj9c3d భారత్
xn--frde-gra.no førde.no
xn--frna-woa.no fræna.no
xn--frya-hra.no frøya.no
xn--fzc2c9e2c ලංකා
xn--fzys8d69uvgm 電訊盈科
xn--g2xx48c 购物
xn--gckr3f0f クラウド
xn--gecrj9c ભારત
xn--ggaviika-8ya47h.no gáŋgaviika.no
xn--gildeskl-g0a.no gildeskål.no
xn--givuotna-8ya.no gáivuotna.no
xn--gjvik-wua.no gjøvik.no
xn--gk3at1e 通販
xn--gls-elac.no gálsá.no
xn--gmq050i.hk 箇人.hk
xn--gmqw5a.hk 個人.hk
個人.香港 個人.香港
xn--h-2fa.no hå.no
xn--h1aegh.museum иком.museum
xn--h2breg3eve भारतम्
xn--h2brj9c भारत
xn--h2brj9c8c भारोत
รัฐบาล.ไทย รัฐบาล.ไทย
xn--hbmer-xqa.no hábmer.no
xn--hcesuolo-7ya35b.no čáhcesuolo.no
xn--hery-ira.nordland.no herøy.nordland.no
xn--hery-ira.xn--mre-og-romsdal-qqb.no herøy.møre-og-romsdal.no
xn--hgebostad-g3a.no hægebostad.no
xn--hmmrfeasta-s4ac.no hámmárfeasta.no
xn--hnefoss-q1a.no hønefoss.no
xn--hobl-ira.no hobøl.no
xn--holtlen-hxa.no holtålen.no
xn--hpmir-xqa.no hápmir.no
xn--hxt814e 网店
xn--hyanger-q1a.no høyanger.no
xn--hylandet-54a.no høylandet.no
xn--i1b6b1a6a2e संगठन
xn--imr513n 餐厅
xn--indery-fya.no inderøy.no
xn--io0a7i 网络
网络.cn 网络.cn
xn--io0a7i.hk 网络.hk
xn--j1aef ком
xn--j1amh укр
xn--j6w193g 香港
xn--jlq61u9w7b 诺基亚
xn--jlster-bya.no jølster.no
xn--jrpeland-54a.no jørpeland.no
xn--jvr189m 食品
xn--k7yn95e.jp 高知.jp
xn--karmy-yua.no karmøy.no
xn--kbrq7o.jp 大分.jp
xn--kcrx77d1x4a 飞利浦
xn--kfjord-iua.no kåfjord.no
xn--klbu-woa.no klæbu.no
xn--klt787d.jp 福島.jp
xn--kltp7d.jp 徳島.jp
xn--kltx9a.jp 広島.jp
xn--klty5x.jp 島根.jp
xn--koluokta-7ya57h.no ákŋoluokta.no
xn--kprw13d 台湾
xn--kpry57d 台灣
xn--kpu716f 手表
xn--kput3i 手机
xn--krager-gya.no kragerø.no
xn--kranghke-b0a.no kråanghke.no
xn--krdsherad-m8a.no krødsherad.no
xn--krehamn-dxa.no åkrehamn.no
xn--krjohka-hwab49j.no kárášjohka.no
xn--ksnes-uua.no øksnes.no
xn--kvfjord-nxa.no kvæfjord.no
xn--kvitsy-fya.no kvitsøy.no
xn--kvnangen-k0a.no kvænangen.no
xn--l-1fa.no ål.no
xn--l1acc мон
xn--laheadju-7ya.no álaheadju.no
xn--langevg-jxa.no langevåg.no
xn--lcvr32d.hk 敎育.hk
xn--ldingen-q1a.no lødingen.no
xn--leagaviika-52b.no leaŋgaviika.no
xn--lesund-hua.no ålesund.no
xn--lgbbat1ad8j الجزائر
xn--lgrd-poac.no ålgård.no
xn--lhppi-xqa.no láhppi.no
xn--linds-pra.no lindås.no
xn--lns-qla.museum läns.museum
xn--loabt-0qa.no loabát.no
xn--lrdal-sra.no lærdal.no
xn--lrenskog-54a.no lørenskog.no
xn--lt-liac.no áltá.no
xn--lten-gra.no løten.no
xn--lury-ira.no lurøy.no
เน็ต.ไทย เน็ต.ไทย
xn--mely-ira.no meløy.no
xn--merker-kua.no meråker.no
xn--mgb2ddes اليمن
xn--mgb9awbf عمان
xn--mgba3a3ejt ارامكو
xn--mgba3a4f16a ایران
xn--mgba3a4f16a.ir ایران.ir
xn--mgba3a4fra ايران
xn--mgba3a4fra.ir ايران.ir
xn--mgba7c0bbn0a العليان
xn--mgbaakc7dvf اتصالات
xn--mgbaam7a8h امارات
xn--mgbab2bd بازار
xn--mgbai9a5eva00b پاكستان
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j پاکستان
xn--mgbayh7gpa الاردن
xn--mgbb9fbpob موبايلي
xn--mgbbh1a بارت
xn--mgbbh1a71e بھارت
xn--mgbc0a9azcg المغرب
xn--mgbca7dzdo ابوظبي
xn--mgberp4a5d4a87g السعودیة
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar السعودية
xn--mgbgu82a ڀارت
xn--mgbi4ecexp كاثوليك
xn--mgbpl2fh سودان
xn--mgbqly7c0a67fbc السعودیۃ
xn--mgbqly7cvafr السعوديه
xn--mgbt3dhd همراه
xn--mgbtf8fl سوريا
xn--mgbtx2b عراق
xn--mgbx4cd0ab مليسيا
xn--mix082f 澳门
xn--mix891f 澳門
xn--mjndalen-64a.no mjøndalen.no
xn--mk0axi.hk 组織.hk
xn--mk1bu44c 닷컴
xn--mkru45i.jp 千葉.jp
xn--mlatvuopmi-s4a.no málatvuopmi.no
xn--mli-tla.no åmli.no
xn--mlselv-iua.no målselv.no
xn--moreke-jua.no moåreke.no
xn--mori-qsa.nz māori.nz
xn--mosjen-eya.no mosjøen.no
xn--mot-tla.no åmot.no
xn--msy-ula0h.no måsøy.no
xn--mtta-vrjjat-k7af.no mátta-várjjat.no
xn--muost-0qa.no muosát.no
xn--mxtq1m 政府
xn--mxtq1m.hk 政府.hk
政府.香港 政府.香港
xn--ngbc5azd شبكة
xn--ngbe9e0a بيتك
xn--ngbrx عرب
xn--nit225k.jp 岐阜.jp
xn--nmesjevuemie-tcba.no nååmesjevuemie.no
xn--nnx388a 臺灣
xn--node გე
xn--nqv7f 机构
xn--nqv7fs00ema 组织机构
xn--nry-yla5g.no nærøy.no
xn--ntso0iqx3a.jp 神奈川.jp
xn--ntsq17g.jp 奈良.jp
xn--nttery-byae.no nøtterøy.no
xn--nvuotna-hwa.no návuotna.no
xn--nyqy26a 健康
пр.срб пр.срб
упр.срб упр.срб
xn--o3cw4h ไทย
ทหาร.ไทย ทหาร.ไทย
網絡.cn 網絡.cn
xn--od0alg.hk 網絡.hk
網絡.香港 網絡.香港
xn--od0aq3b.hk 网絡.hk
xn--ogbpf8fl سورية
xn--oppegrd-ixa.no oppegård.no
xn--ostery-fya.no osterøy.no
xn--osyro-wua.no osøyro.no
xn--otu796d 招聘
xn--p1acf рус
xn--p1ai рф
xn--pbt977c 珠宝
xn--pgbs0dh تونس
xn--porsgu-sta26f.no porsáŋgu.no
xn--pssu33l.jp 大阪.jp
xn--pssy2u 大拿
xn--q9jyb4c みんな
xn--qcka1pmc グーグル
xn--qqqt11m.jp 佐賀.jp
xn--qxam ελ
xn--rady-ira.no radøy.no
xn--rdal-poa.no årdal.no
xn--rde-ula.no råde.no
xn--rdy-0nab.no rødøy.no
xn--rennesy-v1a.no rennesøy.no
xn--rhkkervju-01af.no ráhkkerávju.no
xn--rholt-mra.no råholt.no
xn--rhqv96g 世界
xn--rht27z.jp 山梨.jp
xn--rht3d.jp 岡山.jp
xn--rht61e.jp 山形.jp
xn--risa-5na.no ráisa.no
xn--risr-ira.no risør.no
xn--rland-uua.no ørland.no
xn--rlingen-mxa.no rælingen.no
xn--rmskog-bya.no rømskog.no
xn--rny31h.jp 秋田.jp
xn--rovu88b 書籍
xn--rros-gra.no røros.no
xn--rskog-uua.no ørskog.no
xn--rst-0na.no røst.no
xn--rsta-fra.no ørsta.no
xn--rvc1e0am3e ഭാരതം
xn--ryken-vua.no røyken.no
xn--ryrvik-bya.no røyrvik.no
xn--s-1fa.no ås.no
xn--s9brj9c ਭਾਰਤ
xn--sandnessjen-ogb.no sandnessjøen.no
xn--sandy-yua.no sandøy.no
xn--sdtirol-n2a.it südtirol.it
xn--seral-lra.no åseral.no
xn--ses554g 网址
xn--sgne-gra.no søgne.no
xn--skierv-uta.no skiervá.no
xn--skjervy-v1a.no skjervøy.no
xn--skjk-soa.no skjåk.no
xn--sknit-yqa.no skánit.no
xn--sknland-fxa.no skånland.no
xn--slat-5na.no sálat.no
xn--slt-elab.no sálát.no
xn--smla-hra.no smøla.no
xn--smna-gra.no sømna.no
xn--snase-nra.no snåase.no
xn--sndre-land-0cb.no søndre-land.no
xn--snes-poa.no åsnes.no
xn--snsa-roa.no snåsa.no
xn--sr-aurdal-l8a.no sør-aurdal.no
xn--sr-fron-q1a.no sør-fron.no
xn--sr-odal-q1a.no sør-odal.no
xn--sr-varanger-ggb.no sør-varanger.no
xn--srfold-bya.no sørfold.no
xn--srreisa-q1a.no sørreisa.no
xn--srum-gra.no sørum.no
xn--stjrdal-s1a.no stjørdal.no
xn--stjrdalshalsen-sqb.no stjørdalshalsen.no
xn--stre-toten-zcb.no østre-toten.no
xn--t60b56a 닷넷
xn--tckwe コム
xn--tiq49xqyj 天主教
xn--tjme-hra.no tjøme.no
xn--tn0ag.hk 组织.hk
xn--tnsberg-q1a.no tønsberg.no
xn--tor131o.jp 鳥取.jp
xn--trany-yua.no tranøy.no
xn--trentin-sd-tirol-rzb.it trentin-süd-tirol.it
xn--trentin-sdtirol-7vb.it trentin-südtirol.it
xn--trentino-sd-tirol-c3b.it trentino-süd-tirol.it
xn--trentino-sdtirol-szb.it trentino-südtirol.it
xn--trentinosd-tirol-rzb.it trentinosüd-tirol.it
xn--trentinosdtirol-7vb.it trentinosüdtirol.it
xn--trentinsd-tirol-6vb.it trentinsüd-tirol.it
xn--trentinsdtirol-nsb.it trentinsüdtirol.it
xn--trgstad-r1a.no trøgstad.no
xn--trna-woa.no træna.no
xn--troms-zua.no tromsø.no
xn--tysvr-vra.no tysvær.no
xn--uc0atv.hk 組織.hk
xn--uc0atv.tw 組織.tw
組織.香港 組織.香港
xn--uc0ay4a.hk 組织.hk
xn--uist22h.jp 茨城.jp
xn--uisz3g.jp 宮城.jp
xn--unjrga-rta.no unjárga.no
xn--unup4y 游戏
xn--uuwu58a.jp 沖縄.jp
xn--vads-jra.no vadsø.no
xn--valle-aoste-ebb.it vallée-aoste.it
xn--valle-d-aoste-ehb.it vallée-d-aoste.it
xn--valleaoste-e7a.it valléeaoste.it
xn--valledaoste-ebb.it valléedaoste.it
xn--vard-jra.no vardø.no
xn--vegrshei-c0a.no vegårshei.no
xn--vermgensberater-ctb vermögensberater
xn--vermgensberatung-pwb vermögensberatung
xn--vestvgy-ixa6o.no vestvågøy.no
xn--vg-yiab.no vågå.no
xn--vgan-qoa.no vågan.no
xn--vgsy-qoa0j.no vågsøy.no
xn--vgu402c.jp 愛知.jp
xn--vhquv 企业
xn--vler-qoa.hedmark.no våler.hedmark.no
xn--vler-qoa.xn--stfold-9xa.no våler.østfold.no
xn--vre-eiker-k8a.no øvre-eiker.no
xn--vrggt-xqad.no várggát.no
xn--vry-yla5g.no værøy.no
xn--vuq861b 信息
xn--w4r85el8fhu5dnra 嘉里大酒店
xn--w4rs40l 嘉里
xn--wcvs22d.hk 教育.hk
教育.香港 教育.香港
xn--wgbh1c مصر
xn--wgbl6a قطر
xn--xhq521b 广东
xn--xkc2al3hye2a இலங்கை
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h இந்தியா
xn--y9a3aq հայ
xn--yer-zna.no øyer.no
xn--yfro4i67o 新加坡
xn--ygarden-p1a.no øygarden.no
xn--ygbi2ammx فلسطين
xn--ystre-slidre-ujb.no øystre-slidre.no
xn--zbx025d.jp 滋賀.jp
xn--zf0ao64a.tw 網路.tw
xn--zf0avx.hk 網络.hk
xn--zfr164b 政务

It's relevant that all users of these countries now can use their own letters in domain names.


Yes, I think IDN is a good thing and I wouldn’t suggest abandoning it. (Just that a lot of software, especially related to DNS and servers, won’t support it directly.)

It’s complicated for languages that use Latin script because, for example, Germans have gotten used to the (long-standing) e-substitution for ¨, writing “Juergen” instead of “Jürgen” in most computing contexts. Similarly, speakers of Romance languages have often gotten used to dropping accent marks entirely in domain names. This creates a new kind of ambiguity of expectation when these marks become available in principle but not universally used.


And if someone uses such letters in folder- or filenames, the utf-8 encoding is required.

So the result is something like


which is terrible.

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